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如何成为压力的朋友 [复制链接]

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只看楼主 倒序阅读 使用道具 楼主  发表于: 2022-02-03

如何成为压力的朋友

I have a confession to make. But first, I want you to make a little confession to me. In the past year, I want you to just raise your hand if you've experienced relatively little stress. Anyone?
我要坦白一件事。但首先,我要你们向我坦白一件事。在过去的一年里,在下的任何人,如果你有很小压力,请举手。

How about a moderate amount of stress?
中等程度压力的请举手?

Who has experienced a lot of stress? Yeah. Me too.
经历很大压力的?我也是很大压力。

But that is not my confession. My confession is this: I am a health psychologist, and my mission is to help people be happier and healthier. But I fear that something I've been teaching for the last 10 years is doing more harm than good, and it has to do with stress. For years I've been telling people, stress makes you sick. It increases the risk of everything from the common cold to cardiovascular disease. Basically, I've turned stress into the enemy. But I have changed my mind about stress, and today, I want to change yours
但是,这不是我要坦白的内容。我要坦白和忏悔的是:我是一个健康心理学家,而我的使命是帮助人们更健康和更幸福。但是,我忏悔我在过去的十年教学中释放的焦虑和伤害气氛大于健康和幸福正能量的释放。多年来,我一直告诉人们压力让你生病。压力增加普通感冒和心血管疾病的风险,基本上,我把压力说成是健康敌人。但是,最近我已经改变了对压力的想法。今天,我在此次讲话,希望改变你们的压力想法。

Let me start with the study that made me rethink my whole approach to stress. This study tracked 30,000 adults in the United States for eight years, and they started by asking people, "How much stress have you experienced in the last year?" They also asked, "Do you believe that stress is harmful for your health?" And then they used public death records to find out who died.
让我从重新思考压力应对的研究开始说起。这项研究在8年时间里,跟踪了3万名美国成年人,他们先是问他们,“去年中,你感到多大压力?”,同时一个问题是“你们相信压力对你健康有害吗?”。然后研究机构动用公共死亡记录去发现那些人去世了。

(Laughter)

Okay. Some bad news first. People who experienced a lot of stress in the previous year had a 43 percent increased risk of dying. But that was only true for the people who also believed that stress is harmful for your health.
好,先说坏消息 前一年中,承受很大压力的人 死亡的风险增加了43% 但这仅仅适用于 那些确信压力伤害健康的人 (笑声)

(Laughter)

People who experienced a lot of stress but did not view stress as harmful were no more likely to die. In fact, they had the lowest risk of dying of anyone in the study, including people who had relatively little stress.
承受很大压力的人 如果不相信压力有害健康的,就没有迹象增加死亡。 事实上,研究结果显示,不相信压力有害健康的这些人,死亡风险最低,包含那些确实承受较小压力的人群。

Now the researchers estimated that over the eight years they were tracking deaths, 182,000 Americans died prematurely, not from stress, but from the belief that stress is bad for you.
研究人员花了8年 追踪死亡案例 18.2万 美国人过早离世 原因并不是压力本身 而是认为压力有害的这个想法 (笑)

(Laughter)

That is over 20,000 deaths a year. Now, if that estimate is correct, that would make believing stress is bad for you the 15th largest cause of death in the United States last year, killing more people than skin cancer, HIV/AIDS and homicide.
如果预估是正确的话,一年中超过2万人死亡。这样的话, 「相信压力有害」信念, 就成为美国去年的 第15大死因 致死率更胜皮肤癌 爱滋病和谋杀。

(Laughter)

You can see why this study freaked me out. Here I've been spending so much energy telling people stress is bad for your health.
你们应能体会为何这研究让我担心害怕了 我一直努力告诉他人 压力有碍健康

So this study got me wondering: Can changing how you think about stress make you healthier? And here the science says yes. When you change your mind about stress, you can change your body's response to stress.
因此这研究使我想知道 改变对压力的看法 是否能促进健康? 显然科学对此抱以肯定 改变看待压力的方式 生理上的压力反应亦随之改变

Now to explain how this works, I want you all to pretend that you are participants in a study designed to stress you out. It's called the social stress test. You come into the laboratory, and you're told you have to give a five-minute impromptu speech on your personal weaknesses to a panel of expert evaluators sitting right in front of you, and to make sure you feel the pressure, there are bright lights and a camera in your face, kind of like this.
我来解释为什么会这样 假设你参与一项 意图使你紧张的研究中 就是所谓的「社会压力测试」 你进入实验室后 才知道要发表5分钟的即席演说 这段演说以个人缺点为题 眼前的听众将是一群专业评审 为了确认你确实感到压力 镜头和灯光都会聚焦在你脸上 有点像现在这样!

(Laughter)

And the evaluators have been trained to give you discouraging, non-verbal feedback, like this.
且评审都经过培训 用令人沮丧的非口语言词给你回应,就像这样

(Exhales)

(Laughter)

Now that you're sufficiently demoralized, time for part two: a math test. And unbeknownst to you, the experimenter has been trained to harass you during it. Now we're going to all do this together. It's going to be fun. For me.
就在你已够泄气时 第二场好戏上演了: 数学测验 且你们事前不知道 实验己设定成受测者会被干扰 现在我们一起做做看 我觉得蛮好玩的。



Okay.好的

(Laughter)

I want you all to count backwards from 996 in increments of seven. You're going to do this out loud, as fast as you can, starting with 996. Go!
好,现在你们开始倒数 从996开始,每数一个数减7 要大声地数 越快越好,从996开始 开始!

(Audience counting)

Go faster. Faster please. You're going too slow.
(观众纷纷念数) 请快ㄧ点! 你们太慢了

(Audience counting)

Stop. Stop, stop, stop. That guy made a mistake. We are going to have to start all over again.
停......停......停 那个人算错了 所以我们得重来ㄧ次(笑)

(Laughter)

You're not very good at this, are you? Okay, so you get the idea. If you were actually in this study, you'd probably be a little stressed out. Your heart might be pounding, you might be breathing faster, maybe breaking out into a sweat. And normally, we interpret these physical changes as anxiety or signs that we aren't coping very well with the pressure.
这方面你们不太行,是吗? 现在大家弄清楚是怎么ㄧ回事了 若各位也参与这项研究 可能会有点神经紧张 也许会心跳加速 呼吸急促,甚至满身大大汗 通常我们将这些生理变化 称为焦虑 或代表压力失调的信号

But what if you viewed them instead as signs that your body was energized, was preparing you to meet this challenge? Now that is exactly what participants were told in a study conducted at Harvard University. Before they went through the social stress test, they were taught to rethink their stress response as helpful. That pounding heart is preparing you for action. If you're breathing faster, it's no problem. It's getting more oxygen to your brain. And participants who learned to view the stress response as helpful for their performance, well, they were less stressed out, less anxious, more confident, but the most fascinating finding to me was how their physical stress response changed.
但若将这些现象当成 身体活力充沛的象征 表示已准备好迎接挑战,又会如何呢? 在哈佛大学所进行的这项研究中 他们的受试者就是这样被告知的。 在社会压力测试开始前 受试者学着将压力反应当作助力 心跳加速是蓄势待发 呼吸急促也不要紧 这是为了让大脑得到更多氧气 受试者中,那些学会将压力反应 想成有利表现的人压力小,焦虑少,更自信。 但最令我着迷的发现是 受试者生理上压力反应是如何改变的。

Now, in a typical stress response, your heart rate goes up, and your blood vessels constrict like this. And this is one of the reasons that chronic stress is sometimes associated with cardiovascular disease. It's not really healthy to be in this state all the time. But in the study, when participants viewed their stress response as helpful, their blood vessels stayed relaxed like this. Their heart was still pounding, but this is a much healthier cardiovascular profile. It actually looks a lot like what happens in moments of joy and courage. Over a lifetime of stressful experiences, this one biological change could be the difference between a stress-induced heart attack at age 50 and living well into your 90s. And this is really what the new science of stress reveals, that how you think about stress matters.
典型的压力反应是 心跳加速 血管收缩成这样 这也是为何长期压力 有时会与心血管疾病有所关连的原因之一 总是如此,对健康不是好事。 但在这项研究中,当受试者 把压力反应看作是有帮助的时候, 他们的血管就会像这样放松 他们的心脏仍在强力收缩 但心血管系统的样子健康很多。 事实上它看上去更像 感到兴奋和鼓起勇气时的血管样子 。在一生的压力经历中,这些生理变化区别很大:可能让你50岁时因压力诱发心脏病发作,也可能让你好好活到90岁。这就是压力的新科学揭示给我们的:你如何看待压力很重要。

So my goal as a health psychologist has changed. I no longer want to get rid of your stress. I want to make you better at stress. And we just did a little intervention. If you raised your hand and said you'd had a lot of stress in the last year, we could have saved your life, because hopefully the next time your heart is pounding from stress, you're going to remember this talk and you're going to think to yourself, this is my body helping me rise to this challenge. And when you view stress in that way, your body believes you, and your stress response becomes healthier.
所以我作为一名健康心理学家的目标改变了。我不想再摆脱你的压力了。我想让你更好地应对压力。我们只是做了个小小的干预。如果你刚才举手,说你去年有很多压力,我们可以拯救你了。因为很可能,当你下次因为压力心跳加快时,你要记得今天的这个讲座,认为你自己身体是帮助接受挑战的健康反应。当你以这种方式看待压力时,你的身体就会相信你,你的压力反应就会变得更健康。

Now I said I have over a decade of demonizing stress to redeem myself from, so we are going to do one more intervention. I want to tell you about one of the most under-appreciated aspects of the stress response, and the idea is this: Stress makes you social.
我说过,我有超过十年的妖魔化压力的经历,我要从它中救赎自己,所以我们要再做一次干预。我想告诉你们压力反应中最不被重视的一个方面,这个观点是:压力让你变得有社交能力。

To understand this side of stress, we need to talk about a hormone, oxytocin, and I know oxytocin has already gotten as much hype as a hormone can get. It even has its own cute nickname, the cuddle hormone, because it's released when you hug someone. But this is a very small part of what oxytocin is involved in.
要理解压力的这一面,我们需要讨论一种激素,催产素,我知道催产素已经被炒作得天花乱追了。它甚至有自己可爱的绰号,拥抱荷尔蒙,因为当你拥抱某人时,它就会释放出来。但这只是催产素作用的很小一部分。

Oxytocin is a neuro-hormone. It fine-tunes your brain's social instincts. It primes you to do things that strengthen close relationships. Oxytocin makes you crave physical contact with your friends and family. It enhances your empathy. It even makes you more willing to help and support the people you care about. Some people have even suggested we should snort oxytocin... to become more compassionate and caring. But here's what most people don't understand about oxytocin. It's a stress hormone. Your pituitary gland pumps this stuff out as part of the stress response. It's as much a part of your stress response as the adrenaline that makes your heart pound. And when oxytocin is released in the stress response, it is motivating you to seek support. Your biological stress response is nudging you to tell someone how you feel, instead of bottling it up. Your stress response wants to make sure you notice when someone else in your life is struggling so that you can support each other. When life is difficult, your stress response wants you to be surrounded by people who care about you.
催产素是一种神经激素。它会微调你大脑的社交本能。它促使你做一些事情来加强亲密的关系。催产素让你渴望与朋友和家人进行身体接触。它能增强你的同理心。它甚至会让你更愿意帮助和支持你在乎的人。有些人甚至建议我们应该吸食催产素……变得更有同情和关爱他人之心。但这是大多数人不了解的催产素。这是一种压力荷尔蒙。作为压力反应的一部分,你的脑下垂体泵出这些东西。它是你压力反应的一部分,就像让你心跳加速的肾上腺素一样。当催产素在压力反应中释放时,它会激励你寻求支持。你的生理压力反应促使你告诉别人你的感受,而不是把它藏在心里。当你的生活中有人在挣扎时,你的压力反应要确保你能注意到,这样你们才能互相支持。当生活艰难的时候,你的压力反应是希望身边有关心你的人。

Okay, so how is knowing this side of stress going to make you healthier? Well, oxytocin doesn't only act on your brain. It also acts on your body, and one of its main roles in your body is to protect your cardiovascular system from the effects of stress. It's a natural anti-inflammatory. It also helps your blood vessels stay relaxed during stress. But my favorite effect on the body is actually on the heart. Your heart has receptors for this hormone, and oxytocin helps heart cells regenerate and heal from any stress-induced damage. This stress hormone strengthens your heart.
那么,知道压力的这一面是如何让你更健康的呢?催产素不仅作用于大脑。它也作用于你的身体,它在你身体的一个主要角色是保护你的心血管系统免受压力的影响。它是一种天然的消炎药。它还能帮助你的血管在压力下保持放松。但我最喜欢的对身体的影响实际上是心脏。你的心脏有这种激素的受体,催产素帮助心脏细胞从压力引起的损伤中再生和愈合。这种压力荷尔蒙能增强你的心脏活力。

And the cool thing is that all of these physical benefits of oxytocin are enhanced by social contact and social support. So when you reach out to others under stress, either to seek support or to help someone else, you release more of this hormone, your stress response becomes healthier, and you actually recover faster from stress. I find this amazing, that your stress response has a built-in mechanism for stress resilience, and that mechanism is human connection.
有趣的是,催产素对身体的所有益处都通过社会接触和社会支持而增强。因此,当你在压力下向他人伸出援手时,无论是寻求支持还是帮助他人,你都会释放更多的这种激素,你的压力反应会变得更健康,你实际上也能更快地从压力中恢复过来。我发现这很不可思议,你的压力反应有一个内在的抗压机制,这个机制就是人与人之间的联系。

I want to finish by telling you about one more study. And listen up, because this study could also save a life. This study tracked about 1,000 adults in the United States, and they ranged in age from 34 to 93, and they started the study by asking, "How much stress have you experienced in the last year?" They also asked, "How much time have you spent helping out friends, neighbors, people in your community?" And then they used public records for the next five years to find out who died.
最后我想再讲一个研究。听好了,因为这项研究也可以拯救生命。这项研究追踪了大约1000名美国成年人,他们的年龄在34岁到93岁之间,研究开始时,他们问,“在过去的一年里你经历了多大的压力?”他们还问:“你花了多少时间帮助朋友、邻居和社区里的人?”然后他们利用接下来五年的公共记录来找出死亡的人。

Okay, so the bad news first: For every major stressful life experience, like financial difficulties or family crisis, that increased the risk of dying by 30 percent. But -- and I hope you are expecting a "but" by now -- but that wasn't true for everyone. People who spent time caring for others showed absolutely no stress-related increase in dying. Zero. Caring created resilience.
好了,先说坏消息:每一次重大的压力生活经历,比如经济困难或家庭危机,都会增加30%的死亡风险。但是——我希望你现在正在期待一个“但是”——但这并不是对每个人都适用的。那些花时间关心他人的人在死亡方面完全没有表现出与压力相关的增加,是零。关爱创造康复能力。

And so we see once again that the harmful effects of stress on your health are not inevitable. How you think and how you act can transform your experience of stress. When you choose to view your stress response as helpful, you create the biology of courage. And when you choose to connect with others under stress, you can create resilience. Now I wouldn't necessarily ask for more stressful experiences in my life, but this science has given me a whole new appreciation for stress. Stress gives us access to our hearts. The compassionate heart that finds joy and meaning in connecting with others, and yes, your pounding physical heart, working so hard to give you strength and energy. And when you choose to view stress in this way, you're not just getting better at stress, you're actually making a pretty profound statement. You're saying that you can trust yourself to handle life's challenges. And you're remembering that you don't have to face them alone.
因此,我们再次看到,压力对健康的有害影响并非不可避免。你的思考方式和行动方式可以改变你对压力的感受。当你选择把你的压力反应看作是有益的,你就创造了生物意义的勇气。当你选择在压力下与他人交流时,你就能创造出韧性。现在我不会要求在我的生活中有更多的压力体验,但这项科学发现让我对压力有了全新的认识。压力给了我们心灵的通道。富有同情心的心,在与他人的联系中找到快乐和意义,是的,你跳动的心脏,如此努力地工作,给你力量和能量。当你选择用这种方式看待压力时,你不仅能更好地应对压力,实际上你在做一个非常深刻的表达:你在表达,你,可以相信自己能应对生活中的挑战。你要一直记住,你不必独自面对压力。

Thank you.谢谢。

(Applause)

Chris Anderson: This is kind of amazing, what you're telling us. It seems amazing to me that a belief about stress can make so much difference to someone's life expectancy. How would that extend to advice, like, if someone is making a lifestyle choice between, say, a stressful job and a non-stressful job, does it matter which way they go? It's equally wise to go for the stressful job so long as you believe that you can handle it, in some sense?
克里斯·安德森:你告诉我们的这些,真是太神奇了。对我来说,相信压力能对一个人的预期寿命产生如此大的影响,这似乎很不可思议。这怎么能延伸到建议,比如,如果有人在生活方式上做选择,比如说,有压力的工作和没有压力的工作,他们选择哪种方式重要吗?在某种意义上,选择有压力的工作同样是明智的,只要你相信自己能处理好它?

KM: Yeah, and one thing we know for certain is that chasing meaning is better for your health than trying to avoid discomfort. And so I would say that's really the best way to make decisions, is go after what it is that creates meaning in your life and then trust yourself to handle the stress that follows.
是的,有一件事我们可以肯定的是,定义压力,比试图避免压力伤害对你的健康更好。所以我想说,做决定最好的方法就是去追求那些能给你的生活带来意义的东西,然后相信自己能处理随之而来的压力。


CA: Thank you so much,非常感谢

Kelly. It's pretty cool.好的,谢谢。

(Applause)


转自TED:https://www.ted.com/talks/kelly_mcgonigal_how_to_make_stress_your_friend


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