• 428阅读
  • 0回复

bisic emotions 基本情绪 [复制链接]

上一主题 下一主题

只看楼主 倒序阅读 使用道具 楼主  发表于: 2022-11-12

Basic Emotion Theory
Basic emotion theory has been very influential for more than half a century, providing inspiration for interventions in psychopathology (Saarimaki et al., 2016; Celeghin et al., 2017; Williams, 2017; Hutto et al., 2018; Song and Hakoda, 2018; Vetter et al., 2018; Wang et al., 2018). Theories about basic emotions originated from ancient Greece and China (Russell, 2003). Current basic emotion theory started with Darwin (1872) and Ekman (2003), and later (Tomkins, 1962), subsequently followed by Ekman (1984), and Izard (1977), then by many current psychologists (Ortony and Turner, 1990; Panksepp, 2007; Scarantino and Griffiths, 2011; Gu et al., 2016, 2018; Saarimaki et al., 2016; Hutto et al., 2018). Basic emotion theory proposes that human beings have a limited number of emotions (e.g., fear, anger, joy, sadness) that are biologically and psychologically “basic” (Wilson-Mendenhall et al., 2013), each manifested in an organized recurring pattern of associated behavioral components (Ekman, 1992a; Russell, 2006). Izard (1977) argued that the basic emotions are preserved because their biological and social functions are essential in evolution and adaption; he further suggested that basic emotions have innate neural substrates and universal behavioral phenotypes (Shpigler et al., 2017). In a special issue of Emotion Review, several research psychologists outlined the latest thinking about each theoretical model of basic emotions (Plutchik, 1962; Ekman and Friesen, 1969; Ekman, 2003; Izard, 2010, 2011; Ekman and Cordaro, 2011; Levenson, 2011; Panksepp and Watt, 2011; Tracy and Randles, 2011).

Basic emotions evolved to handle fundamental life tasks, e.g., fear and anger can aid survival by influencing an organism to either flee for safety or fight to defend itself. The elements of basic emotions can be combined to form complex or compound emotions (Ekman, 1992b). Even though many psychologists have accepted the theory of basic emotions, there is no consensus about the precise number of basic emotions. Robert Plutchik proposed eight primary emotions: anger, fear, sadness, disgust, surprise, anticipation, trust and joy, and arranged them in a color wheel. Ekman proposed seven basic emotions: fear, anger, joy, sad, contempt, disgust, and surprise; but he changed to six basic emotions: fear, anger, joy, sadness, disgust, and surprise. However, a recent study found that disgust and anger shared similar wrinkled nose, and fear and surprise shared raised eyebrows (Jack et al., 2014). The differences between anger and disgust and the differences between fear and surprise, are thought to have developed later for social functions and not for survival per se (Mansourian et al., 2016). As such, Jack et al. (2014) proposed that we humans have four basic emotions: fear, anger, joy, and sad. Notably, other authors have also proposed fear, anger, joy, and sadness as four basic emotions (Gu et al., 2015, 2016; Wang and Pereira, 2016; Zheng et al., 2016). As Izard said: people need the category label of fear to explain flight to one another for safety, anger to explain the frustration of blocked goal responses, joy (or its equivalent) to explain the pride of achievement, and sadness to explain the experience of a life-changing loss (Izard, 2007).

半个多世纪以来,基本情绪理论一直非常有影响力,为精神病理学的干预提供了灵感(Saarimaki et al., 2016; Celeghin et al., 2017; Williams, 2017; Hutto et al., 2018; Song and Hakoda, 2018;Vetter 等人,2018;Wang 等人,2018)。关于基本情绪的理论起源于古希腊和中国(Russell,2003)。当前的基本情绪理论始于 Darwin (1872) 和 Ekman (2003),后来 (Tomkins, 1962),随后是 Ekman (1984) 和 Izard (1977),然后是许多当前的心理学家 (Ortony and Turner, 1990; Panksepp,2007;Scarantino 和 Griffiths,2011;Gu 等人,2016、2018;Saarimaki 等人,2016;Hutto 等人,2018)。基本情绪理论提出,人类有有限数量的情绪(例如,恐惧、愤怒、快乐、悲伤),这些情绪在生物学和心理上都是“基本的”(Wilson-Mendenhall 等人,2013 年),每一种情绪都以有组织的重复模式表现出来相关的行为成分(Ekman,1992a;Russell,2006)。 Izard (1977) 认为基本情绪得以保留,因为它们的生物学和社会功能在进化和适应中是必不可少的。他进一步提出,基本情绪具有先天的神经基质和普遍的行为表型(Shpigler et al., 2017)。在《情绪评论》的一期特刊中,几位研究心理学家概述了对每种基本情绪理论模型的最新思考(Plutchik,1962;Ekman 和 Friesen,1969;Ekman,2003;Izard,2010,2011;Ekman 和 Cordaro,2011;Levenson , 2011 年;Panksepp 和 Watt,2011 年;Tracy 和 Randles,2011 年)。

基本情绪演变为处理基本的生活任务,例如,恐惧和愤怒可以通过影响有机体逃离安全或为自卫而战来帮助生存。基本情绪的元素可以组合形成复杂或复合的情绪(Ekman,1992b)。尽管许多心理学家已经接受了基本情绪的理论,但对于基本情绪的确切数量还没有达成共识。罗伯特·普拉奇克提出了八种主要情绪:愤怒、恐惧、悲伤、厌恶、惊讶、期待、信任和快乐,并将它们排列在一个色轮中。埃克曼提出了七种基本情绪:恐惧、愤怒、喜悦、悲伤、蔑视、厌恶和惊讶;但他变成了六种基本情绪:恐惧、愤怒、喜悦、悲伤、厌恶和惊讶。然而,最近的一项研究发现,厌恶和愤怒有相似的皱纹鼻子,而恐惧和惊讶有相似的眉毛(Jack et al., 2014)。愤怒和厌恶之间的差异以及恐惧和惊讶之间的差异被认为是后来为了社会功能而不是为了生存本身而发展起来的(Mansourian et al., 2016)。因此,杰克等人。 (2014) 提出我们人类有四种基本情绪:恐惧、愤怒、快乐和悲伤。值得注意的是,其他作者也提出了恐惧、愤怒、快乐和悲伤作为四种基本情绪(Gu et al., 2015, 2016; Wang and Pereira, 2016; Zheng et al., 2016)。正如伊扎德所说:人们需要恐惧的类别标签来解释彼此为了安全而逃跑,愤怒来解释受阻的目标反应的挫败感,喜悦(或类似的东西)来解释成就的自豪感,悲伤来解释​​经历的经历改变生活的损失(Izard,2007 年)。

Dimensional Theory of Emotion
Dimensional studies of emotions originated from Wundt (1897), later followed by Scholsberg (1954), who proposed that emotions can be defined by three-independent dimensions: pleasant-unpleasant, tension-relaxation, and excitation-calm. Later, many others found that the last two dimensions are actually overlapping. Ekman (1957) also proposed a pleasant-unpleasant and active-passive scale as sufficient to capture the difference among emotions. Then Russell’s (1980) invented the circumplex, and proposed that all emotions can be arranged in a circle controlled by two independent dimensions: hedonic (pleasure-displeasure) and arousal (rest-activated) (Figure 1, left) (Russell, 1980; Russell and Barrett, 1999; Posner et al., 2005; Barrett and Russell, 2015). The horizontal axis of the circumplex is hedonic and the vertical axis is arousal; accordingly, the different location of each emotion on the quadrant reflects varying amounts of hedonic and arousal properties (Figure 1; Posner et al., 2005).

情绪的维度研究起源于 Wundt (1897),随后是 Scholsberg (1954),他提出情绪可以由三个独立的维度来定义:愉快-不愉快、紧张-放松和兴奋-平静。后来,许多其他人发现最后两个维度实际上是重叠的。 Ekman (1957) 还提出了一个愉快-不愉快和主动-被动量表,足以捕捉情绪之间的差异。然后Russell(1980)发明了circumplex,并提出所有情绪都可以排列在一个由两个独立维度控制的圆圈中:享乐(快乐-不快乐)和唤醒(休息-激活)(图1,左)(Russell,1980;罗素和巴雷特,1999;波斯纳等人,2005;巴雷特和罗素,2015)。环的横轴是享乐的,纵轴是唤醒的;因此,象限上每种情绪的不同位置反映了不同数量的享乐和唤醒特性(图 1;Posner 等,2005)。

In this review, we propose a framework for the evolutionary study of emotions based on behavioral observations of Drosophila. From analysis of molecules and neural systems to observational study of behaviors and social functions, the Drosophila model is a powerful tool to understand the evolutionary origin and neurobiological underpinnings of emotions (Anderson, 2016; Kim et al., 2018). The brain structure of Drosophila are totally different from that of humans, but they have similar neuromodulators and innate states (Kim et al., 2018). Numerous studies have pointed to an important role for neuromodulators (e.g., DA, 5-HT, and NE) in the emotional process (Pereira and Murthy, 2017). Neuromodulators are believed to control the internal states related to emotions, mood, and affects, and exert critical influences on emotion related behaviors (Watanabe et al., 2017).

Emotion Is an Innate State, Whose Neural Substrate Is the Neuromodulator Release
We demonstrated that basic emotions are primitive, internal states that have gained new meanings and new external behavioral expression via evolution in order to meet organisms’ biological, social, and functional needs (Ekman, 1992b; Anderson and Adolphs, 2014). Reward, punishment, and stress are the three most primitive features of the four basic emotions (happiness, sadness, fear, anger) and are driven by the three monoamine neuromodulators (DA-reward, 5-HT-punishment, NE-stress). These three monoamines are not only the substrates for the four basic emotions, but we posit that these monoamines combine in varying degrees to ultimately create various higher order emotions, much like the way different colors can be created from the three primary colors; we call this the “Three Primary Color Model of Basic Emotions.”

This paper establishes a new theory of emotion. A scientific theory in psychology, similar to those in physics, is its elegance and beauty in describing a vast area of knowledge from few basic principles, or use few fundamental principles to describe a vast area of knowledge (Perlovsky, 2016b). Traditional psychology is a “soft” science that does not develop models of the mind based on few principles, describing vast areas of knowledge, and making experimentally verifiable predictions (Perlovsky, 2016b). Here we introduced the very simple model for basic emotions, a very simple theory about emotions. It might be an oversimplification to categorize monoamine simply as an aggression-promoting neuromodulator, but we hope our hypothesis can help understand the basic emotion theory. For validation, detailed studies of the specific behavioral expressions of states of relative excess or deficit of the neurotransmitters 5-HT, NE, and DA may offer confirmatory observations supporting this model of emotions.

在这篇综述中,我们提出了一个基于果蝇行为观察的情绪进化研究框架。从分子和神经系统分析到行为和社会功能的观察研究,果蝇模型是了解情绪的进化起源和神经生物学基础的有力工具(Anderson,2016;Kim 等,2018)。果蝇的大脑结构与人类完全不同,但它们具有相似的神经调节剂和先天状态(Kim et al., 2018)。大量研究指出神经调节剂(例如 DA、5-HT 和 NE)在情绪过程中的重要作用(Pereira 和 Murthy,2017)。神经调节剂被认为可以控制与情绪、情绪和影响相关的内部状态,并对情绪相关的行为产生关键影响(Watanabe 等人,2017 年)。

我们证明了基本情绪是原始的内部状态,通过进化获得了新的含义和新的外部行为表达,以满足生物体的生物学、社会和功能需求(Ekman,1992b;Anderson 和 Adolphs,2014)。奖励、惩罚和压力是四种基本情绪(快乐、悲伤、恐惧、愤怒)中最原始的三个特征,由三种单胺神经调节剂(DA-reward、5-HT-punishment、NE-stress)驱动。这三种单胺不仅是四种基本情绪的底物,而且我们假设这些单胺在不同程度上结合最终会产生各种更高阶的情绪,就像从三种原色中产生不同颜色的方式一样;我们称之为“基本情绪的三基色模型”。

本文建立了一种新的情感理论。心理学中的科学理论,类似于物理学中的科学理论,它的优雅和美丽在于从很少的基本原理来描述广阔的知识领域,或者使用很少的基本原理来描述广阔的知识领域(Perlovsky,2016b)。传统心理学是一门“软”科学,它不会根据少数原则开发思维模型,描述大量知识领域,并做出可实验验证的预测(Perlovsky,2016b)。在这里,我们介绍了一个非常简单的基本情绪模型,一个关于情绪的非常简单的理论。将单胺简单地归类为促进攻击性的神经调节剂可能过于简单,但我们希望我们的假设可以帮助理解基本的情绪理论。为了验证,对神经递质 5-HT、NE 和 DA 相对过量或缺乏状态的特定行为表达的详细研究可能会提供支持这种情绪模型的证实性观察。

Frontiers | A Model for Basic Emotions Using Observations of Behavior in Drosophila (frontiersin.org)
限100 字节
上一个 下一个